Friday, May 22, 2020

King Philip VI of France

King Philip VI  was also known as: in French,  Philippe de Valois King Philip VI was known for: Being  the first French king of the Valois dynasty. His reign saw the beginning of the Hundred Years War and the arrival of the Black Death. Occupations: King Places of Residence and Influence: France Important Dates: Born:  1293Crowned:  May 27, 1328Died:  , 1350 About King Philip VI: Philip was a cousin to kings: Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV were the last of the direct line of Capetian kings. When Charles IV died in 1328, Philip became regent until Charles widow gave birth to what was expected to be the next king. The child was female and, Philip claimed, was therefore ineligible to rule under Salic Law. The only other male claimaint was Englands Edward III, whose mother was the late kings sister and who, due to the same restrictions of Salic Law regarding females, was also barred from succession. So, in May of 1328, Philip of Valois became King Philip VI of France. In August of that year, the count of Flanders appealed to Philip for help in putting down a revolt. The king responded by sending his knights to slaughter thousands at the Battle of Cassel. Not long after that, Robert of Artois, who had helped Philip secure the crown, claimed the countship of Artois; but a royal claimant did so, as well. Philip instituted judicial proceedings against Robert, turning his one-time supporter into a bitter enemy. It wasnt until 1334 that trouble began with England. Edward III, who didnt particularly like paying homage to Philip for his holdings in France, decided to flout Philips interpretation of Salic Law and lay claim to the French crown through his mothers line. (Edward was most likely spurred on in his animosity toward Philip by Robert of Artois.) In 1337 Edward landed on French soil, and what would later be known as the Hundred Years War began. In order to wage war Philip had to raise taxes, and in order to raise taxes he had to make concessions to the nobility, the clergy, and the bourgeoisie. This resulted in the rise of the estates and the beginning of a reform movement in the clergy. Philip also had difficulties with his council, many of whom were under the influence of the powerful Duke of Burgundy. The arrival of plague in 1348 pushed many of these problems to the background, but they were still there (along with the plague) when Philip died in 1350. More King Philip VI Resources: King Philip VI on the Web Philip VIConcise intro at Infoplease.Philippe VI de Valois (1293-1349)Very brief bio at the official website of France. The Hundred Years War Chronological Index Geographical Index Index by Profession, Achievement, or Role in Society The text of this document is copyright  ©2005-2015 Melissa Snell. You may download or print this document for personal or school use, as long as the URL below is included. Permission is not granted to reproduce this document on another website. For publication permission, please   contact  Melissa Snell. The URL for this document is:http://historymedren.about.com/od/pwho/fl/King-Philip-VI-of-France.htm

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Solving Credit Problem Paper Solving Debt Problem

Solving Credit Problem Paper Anna is facing a financial problem in which she does not have an adequate amount of money to pay her monthly expenses. Just when she is living paycheck to paycheck, she is given a huge unexpected expense to pay a mechanic to fix her car. The major downside is she needs her car fixed, there is no way around it, as her car is the only way to and from work. This big financial hiccup in her month is causing Anne to have major anxiety and worry about where she is going to find the money to still survive and pay her bills, while paying this huge unexpected expense. Anna has a monthly net income of $1,642. She will now need to pay her secured debt first. This includes her rent which is $550. Leaving her with $1,092 monthly net income left. Next she should pay her car payment because there is no reason to pay a mechanic if she does not even have a car to drive. A car loan is also considered secured debt because a creditor has the right to take it if you do not pay your debt. Therefore, she s hould pay $152 for her car payment, leaving her with $940. Because she is needing her car for transpiration to and from work she should also pay the $112 for auto insurance. This will leave her with $828. Paying family necessities should always be paid first. Therefore, she will need money for food and personal/ household items. Anna agreed to cut down on her expenses and only buy necessities. She agreed to not eat out and cook from scratch which will save her a lotShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Debt For A Married Couples1416 Words   |  6 PagesManagement Final Paper December 06, 2015 Abstract This research paper examines the impact of debt for recently married couples. In this paper, you find the following topics, 1). Debt 2). Money-valuable resource 3). Reasons people create debt 4). Types of debts 5). Ways debts affect a couple martial satisfactions 6). 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(2 marks) PVDC = -96,471.39 (2 marks)Read MoreBank Of Americ A Big Name For A Finance Company1140 Words   |  5 PagesMGMT 117 Paper 2 Bank of America has always been a big name for a finance company in the United States. My mother has actually worked for the company for over 23 years, and has always informed me that they are a terrible organization. Therefore, I should not have been surprised when they appeared in the book, as one of many famous companies that have received subsidies on the basis of creating new jobs, only to layoff its employees shortly thereafter. Bank of America has actually done this twiceRead MoreEssay on The Importance of Music Education in the School Curriculum2336 Words   |  10 Pagesstates that a student graduating from high school must have at least four math credits, four English credits, three science credits, three social studies credits, one physical education credit, one performing and applied arts credit, and two foreign language credits (Michigan Department of Education†). Many people will say â€Å"there you go; you have a performing and applied arts credit, what more d o you want?† But the problem with that is the definition of applied and performing art is so broad, it mightRead MoreEnron Accounting Scandal1096 Words   |  5 Pagesshift debt and losses off of the books would soon come to an end. With the help from Andersen Accounting firm, Enron would lose control of their illegal attempt to contain the debt and loss of the company. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Voting Rights Act Free Essays

Movement was a social revolution that had been an Important part of the united States for decades, but it wasn’t until the sass’s that the movement actually began to actively affect the daily lives of Americans. Previously, the Civil Rights advocates had been attempting to simply integrate themselves into the whole of America as a result of the discriminatory mindset of many whites and the unfair treatment of blacks, but this goal shifted dramatically during the sixties as the movement pushed forward. These early Integration attempts Included non-violent ethos such as sit-ins, demonstrations In Birmingham, and the March on Washington, yet even though the protesters were persistent and used non-violent methods to accomplish this early goal, much of America still refused to listen. We will write a custom essay sample on Voting Rights Act or any similar topic only for you Order Now In 1964, the Civil Rights Act outlawed segregation in public accommodations, which was monumental to the Civil Rights Movement because It shattered the Jim Crow system. The year after, the Voting Rights Act was passed which prohibited racial delimitation while voting. However, even with the ability to fairly vote and with discrimination outlawed by the Civil Rights Act, blacks still found themselves in a seer position than most whites in society and began to strive for higher goals than just integration. Once they had more or less achieved desegregation, many blacks wanted to advance their goal beyond desegregation and into black power. Because of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the goals and strategies of the Civil Rights Movement shifted from non-violent civil disobedience to more militant methods in favor of self-defense and black power even though there was a scarcity of white support. Before the Civil Rights act of 1 964 and the Voting Rights Act f 1965, much of the Civil Rights Movement focused on achieving desegregation and equality. For example, the (The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) was founded by college students in 1960 with the goal of equality and integration, and specifically sought for a social order of Justice permeated of love. Martin Luther King and the people who protested in Birmingham believed that Injustice threatened America, and sought to bring this to the attention of the country. The tactics of the pre-1965 Civil Rights movement varied in specifics, but the overall strategy followed nonviolent methods. Groups such as the SYNC strove for courage, love, acceptance and hope through nonviolent methods, while protesters around the country had similar tactics. For example, in 1963 in Birmingham, Alabama, call rights protesters stood up against unfair laws and police brutality without raising a hand to defend themselves. In such demonstrations, they relied on the media and the pictures taken of their efforts to spread their message across America and raise support. These actions were modeled after other nonviolent movements throughout history such as the Indian Independence Movement in the early sass’s. More specific strategies of the Civil Rights Movement included bus boycotts to Integrate public transportation, sit-ins to Integrate public the movement didn’t aim to overcome discrimination swiftly; they were thorough and won victories slowly. Movement had moderate goals, and generally did not aim to overcome prejudice in a swift and aggressive manner. Document A: SYNC (The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) was founded by college students in 1960 with the purpose of equality, integration, and with the hope for an integrated society using non-violent methods. Document B: In 1963, civil rights workers protested the treatment of African-Americans in Birmingham, Alabama, and workers including Martin Luther King were arrested. While in Jail, King wrote a letter from Birmingham Jail to the Episcopal clergy of Birmingham with the intent of persuading the people to take action. Injustice anywhere is a threat to Justice everywhere. Document C: Document D: In 1963 President Kennedy told the nation about his goal to provide all Americans equal rights and equal opportunities by asking the United States Congress to act on the subject of equal laws for all citizens of America. As an indirect result of this report, the Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964, which outlawed many forms of discrimination, amended unfair voter registration requirements, and ended racial segregation in public accommodations. Document E: By 1966, the goals of the Civil Rights Movement had shifted from national integration and brotherhood to a more powerful role of black people in society. People such as Stokers Carmichael and other activists for black power aimed for well- off black communities in which humanistic love would prevail. Document F: Civil rights protesters became impatient with the slow-moving pace of non-violent, defenseless demonstrations that had been taking place in the earlier years of the sass’s. As a result, groups such as the Black Panther Party were formed, which called Americans. Document G: As a result of both the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Freedom Summer, the percentage of registered African-American voters increased significantly in the south, showing that many of the strategies of previous civil rights workers had begun to change the unjust laws of the American society. Document H: Despite the committed efforts of the civil rights workers to integrate the American society, there were still millions of whites who disagreed with racial equality and the consequences that came with it, as shown by the 1968 election statistics in which nearly ten million people voted for segregationist George Wallace. How to cite Voting Rights Act, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci or better known as Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) was a renowned Italian genius and perhaps a man of immeasurable curiosity and an inventive mind. His multiple talents enabled him to do many things in different fields including painting, writing, architecture, engineering, geology, anatomy, and botany among others (Veltman 381).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Leonardo Da Vinci specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite his diverse talents, Leonardo is well known for his works in art, particularly painting whereby he produced some of the most famous paintings such as the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and the Vitruvian Man among many more (Emmer 449; Mills 39). On the other hand, being an illegitimate son of a notary and a peasant woman did little to undermine Leonardo’s quest to excel in different fields, which ranged from painting to science and technology. Arguably, Leonardo was perhaps the greatest mind of the Renaissance era. Background Youth and Early Years Leonardo was born and raised in Italy under the protection of his father and stepmothers. He spent most of his youth working at Verrocchio’s workshop and learning the laws of science and nature after he had been informally educated in geometry and mathematics. His stay at Verrocchio’s workshop gave him the necessary exposure and experience in painting, which saw him becoming one of the painting masters at the age of 20, and he received recognition by the Guild of St Luke (Budd 13; Emmer 450). His Greatest Works Some of Leonardo’s greatest works to date have been in painting more than in science and technology. One of Leonardo’s most famous works include The Last Supper, which was done in the 1490s. The painting captures Jesus’ last moments with the 12 disciples, specifically at the moment where he reminded them that one among the disciples would betray him. The othe r great work by Leonardo is the Mona Lisa, which he painted in the 1500s, and it is arguably one of the most famous paintings in the world to date. Apart from painting, Leonardo created several drawings in science and technology such as the Vitruvian Man and the picture of a fetus in the womb (Clayton and Philo 8-12). A Renaissance Man Leonardo was a genius and a true Renaissance man owing to his extensive talents that extended far beyond painting and drawing. Following in the footsteps of other Renaissance humanists of his time, Leonardo had developed a keen interest in establishing the relationship between art and science. Accordingly, he had varied interests in science and technology, particularly in anatomy, optics, and hydraulics whereby he came up with some original pieces of inventions. This interest in science and technology had a great influence on Leonardo’s paintings and drawings (Mills 39).Advertising Looking for essay on biography? Let's see if we can help y ou! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Level of Acclaim Acquired Leonardo commands admiration and respect from other painters, critics, and fans in equal measure. His fame and reputation increases by the day, especially considering the number of people who travel long distances and pay a lot of money just to have a glimpse at his famous pieces of art. The young generation is also keeping up with the pace by purchasing merchandises that contain Leonardo’s most famous paintings and drawings. On the other hand, writers around the globe have written extensively on Leonardo’s talent, and his private life is at the center of numerous speculations (Emmer 449-453). Struggles and Challenges Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Dyslexia Many writers have observed that Leonardo was suffering from ADD owing to his inability to finish all the projects that he started. Actually, there are about 15 paintings created by Leonardo, which survive to date while most of his works produced disastrous results because of his constant desire to experiment with new painting techniques. This is a typical symptom of ADD, which causes one to get distracted so easily. Other writers have noted that Leonardo was dyslexic because he used to write from right-to-left without being consciously aware (Emmer 449-453). Struggles with the Church As noted earlier, Leonardo was a true Renaissance humanist. The proponents of Renaissance humanism focused on art and science as well as other human concerns that were not relevant in the church. Hence, Leonardo and his colleagues pursued different interests concerning humanity such as the Greek and Roman philosophy and historiography, which contradicted the teachings of the Medieval Christian Church of their time. For instance, instead of being pre-occupied with worldly issues, most Renaissance humanists tended to promote human interests that improved human life. Moreover, Renaissance humanists were the major promoters of an ti-church and anti-clerical sentiments during Leonardo’s era. Hence, Renaissance humanism and its ideologies were in stark contrast with the medieval ideals (Veltman 385). Keeping his Work Private Leonardo tried to keep his works private using his notebooks, which he wrote in mirror-image handwritings. Most people belief that Leonardo preferred the â€Å"backwards† handwriting as a way of ensuring that he maintained secrecy. However, there are those who view his actions as an unconscious form of left-handedness whereby an individual writes from right-to-left without being aware of it.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Leonardo Da Vinci specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is a typical feature of most dyslexics whose left-handedness is not considered as a problem, but a gift. In Leonardo’s case, his dyslexic gift was used to conceal details in his pieces of artwork including sketches, painting ideas, and even scientific inventions (Mills 39-42; Veltman 383). However, after his death, some of Leonardo’s private notes have found their way into the hands of third parties. His Contributions In Art Leonardo was the most talented artist of his time. He produced the most famous paintings and drawings, and introduced different painting techniques such as the Chiaroscuro, which is a technique he used to create a contrast between light and dark colors. Moreover, Leonardo introduced the sfumato painting technique, which promoted the use of smoky effects in paintings. The other painting techniques introduced by Leonardo include linear perspective and the use of light and shadow in paintings. Linear perspective is a technique used by Leonardo to give his paintings life and a three-dimensional look. Furthermore, his knowledge of human anatomy enabled him to create graphic, proportionate, and real paintings (Mills 39; Veltman 383). In Science Apart from painting, drawing, and sc ulpture, Leonardo was also talented in science, engineering, and technology. Leonardo’s most famous contributions arose from his attempt to create a connection between science and art. He attempted to understand science from an observational perspective, and in so doing, he developed an understanding of the anatomy of humans and various animals. This is evidenced in his drawings of human embryos, the human skeleton, the human backbone, the human circulatory system, and the muscles among other anatomical structures. His understanding of the human anatomy helped him to develop the first robot. He also drew several diagrams regarding his engineering inventions such as the self-pumping waterwheel, the overbalancing hammer wheel, and the rolling ball wheel among others (Mills 39-42). Why Study Leonardo Today After examining Leonardo’s early life, his struggles and challenges as well as his contributions to art and science, it is important to look at his worth in the contemp orary fields of art and science. In the modern society, science and technology plays a huge role in almost every aspect of human life starting with communication, transportation, and even medicine. Leonardo’s early attempts to create a connection between art and science are useful for the modern artist who is looking for ways to use the dynamic advances in science and technology for the benefit of visual art. Hence, Leonardo da Vinci deserves attention because of his ideas on the fusion between art and science (Veltman 384-385).Advertising Looking for essay on biography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Leonardo da Vinci was the most multi-talented individual to have graced the Renaissance era and even the contemporary society. Leonardo’s long-lasting fame and reputation arose from his talents in painting and drawing. He managed to produce several paintings and drawings, which were famous and influential during his time. He was also a true Renaissance humanist having championed human interests that produced the greatest good for all. His contributions in art and science are also worth mentioning considering that he was the first to use some of the well-known painting techniques besides conceiving some of the greatest scientific and engineering inventions of his time. Lastly, Leonardo’s attempt to relate art and science earned him the honors of being studied today because his ideas are quite fascinating. Works Cited Budd, Denise A. â€Å"Leonardo da Vinci and Workshop Practice: The Role of the Dated Notation.† The Journal of the History of Art 10.1(20 09): 13-39. Print. Clayton, Martin C., and Ronald Philo. Leonardo Da Vinci: The Mechanics of Man. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Publications, 2010. Print. Emmer, Michelle. â€Å"A Film on Leonardo da Vinci by Luciano Emmer.† Leonardo 42.5(2009): 449-453. Print. Mills, Allan A. â€Å"Leonardo da Vinci and Perpetual Motion.† Leonardo 41.1(2008): 39-42. Print. Veltman, Kim H. â€Å"Leonardo da Vinci: A Review.† Leonardo 41.4(2008): 381-388. Print. This essay on Leonardo Da Vinci was written and submitted by user Alicia Schneider to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. Leonardo Da Vinci Introduction The renaissance was a period in history where Europe underwent a rebirth in its perception of art. It marked the transformation of the continent from the middle ages to the modern era. The renaissance was the starting point for the development of concepts such as individualism, secularism as well as capitalism. In art, most works were associated with geometric representations of the natural world.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Leonardo Da Vinci specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, some scholars are quick to warn others about the dangers of bracketing all artists in the renaissance into one similar group because some individuals do not fit neatly into these patterns. While other Italian artists may fall outside conventional understandings of art in the renaissance, Leonardo de Vinci does not; his work exemplifies this radical transformation in the representation of images and forms on various m edia. Distinct features of the renaissance Renaissance art was known for its focus on personalities, attitudes or emotions rather than just the outlines or forms of the images being represented. Artists were able to capture emotion even in sculptures, especially the unsupported nude (Maginnis 14). Most of their forms had great emotional intensity and thus appeared more natural. This was also a time when paintings or drawings became more realistic than they had ever been before (Saari Saari 44). Most of the artists who achieved this goal utilised the concept of perspective in their work. They made their two-dimensional representations seem very similar to three-dimensional figures. The ability to manipulate light and darkness in renaissance work also made artistic quite authentic (Jurdjevic 250). These artists knew how to work with tone and they would play with contrast in a manner that achieved their desired goal. As stated earlier, the renaissance was a time in history when Europe started experiencing elements of secularism (Hay 130). In the period before the renaissance, most artists were intent on promoting religious devotion through their work. However, in the renaissance era, artists started doing some mythological representations and focused on subjects outside of religion. It should be noted that the extent to which this occurred was rather small. However, secular paintings were still a reality (Hart Wilkins 23). Lastly, the renaissance was also associated with the accurate representation of images and forms in space. This was manifested through effective use of motion. Images in this era, therefore, focused on correctness and logic rather than unscientific work (Macdonald 9).Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leonardo’s techniques and contribution to the renaissance Leonardo is best known for his superior use of light and shade in his artisti c work. This was a concept that made his paintings more realistic and came to be a distinct feature of the renaissance period. As such, Da Vinci was a true renaissance artist. A typical case of how he used light and shade wistfully was his painting of ‘Virgin and Child with a Cat’. In this artwork, Leonardo was able to capture the mass of his subjects through effective use of light and shade (Van Cleave 86). Leonardo mastered this technique by analysing his life-sized sculptures. They often replicated the manner in which light and shade fell on real human subjects. It was this ability to transform such abstract concepts, such as light and reflection, to artistic works that made Leonardo highly valued in the renaissance. O’Connor (50) explains that Leonardo’s ability to manipulate light and darkness stemmed from his intense study of optics. The artist wanted to learn more about the phenomenon of light transmission. He, therefore, used science in order to ac complish his artistic goals. At the time, the individual focused on using real human eyes to study light. He obtained eyes from medical colleagues and discovered a way of hardening different layers of the eye. He then came up with theories on how light was reflected by the different components. Although these concepts seemed far-fetched at the time, and most medical scientists rejected his ideas, Da Vinci’s theories proved to be quite practical for his designs as well as his artistic work (McHam 53). He found out that light travels in waves and that the eye worked as a lens. Such ideas assisted him in accurately representing his paintings. The comprehensive scientific work done by Da Vinci exemplifies the need to focus on scientific representation of form. Leonardo was a true renaissance artist because he strived for correct representation of form through scientific mechanisms. Geometric calculations and intense preparations were famous methods used by renaissance artists to increase the accuracy their work, and Da Vinci was no exception (Kavaler 16). When Leonardo lived in Milan, his ruler had talked about the desire to make a bronze horse with a rider on it. When Leonardo heard about this interest, he took it upon himself to research about the item intensely. He learnt a lot about bronze casting and then observed horses at rest, racing horses as well as prancing horses. He disentangled various components of the horse’s body part and worked on them independently. Thereafter, Da Vinci was commissioned with the job, and he created a clay model of a horse and its rider. The model was quite huge and profoundly detailed. Leonardo worked out a way of determining how much bronze he would need to cover the clay model from top to bottom. Once again, he relied on scientific methods of measurements and dimension.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Leonardo Da Vinci specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Lea rn More The clay mould was never transformed into a bronze statue because Italy diverted its bronze elements for use in making weapons (O’Connor 55). However, the intense and meticulous preparation of the artist is a depiction of his renaissance leanings. He always wanted to make his sculptures and paintings as accurate as possible, and to do this well, then scientific or geometric methods came in handy (Langley 92). Leonardo often created pieces that captured emotions effectively and seemed magical in the way they represented the human form. A case in point is the Mona Lisa, which is, arguably, the most famous painting ever made by a renaissance artist. Art lovers and critics alike still remain fascinated by the image of the ‘Mona Lisa’. People have imitated and reproduced the ‘Mona Lisa’ in an attempt to demystify this creation. The same thing may be said about his portraits of beautiful women such as ‘Cecilia Gallarani’. There was a high degree of depth in these pieces because the women were not just beautiful; they had a contemplative and pensive countenance. Da Vinci superbly captured these qualities in his work and thus exemplified the renaissance tendency to portray human emotion so well. The women in these portraits appeared to have something to hide. However, instead of revealing to the audience what the model was concealing, Da Vinci preferred to show the concealment in order to allow audiences to speculate about those missing components for themselves. Da Vinci was also widely reputed for his ability to capture movement and mass with subtlety. In the portrait â€Å"Virgin of the rocks† the artist had a way of moving from shapes to tones without demonstration of any sort of contours in his pieces. The delicateness of the features in this painting, and many others was evidence of the fact that Leonardo had a deep-seated ability to smoothly transition between forms. Da Vinci’s promienence as a renaissance artist also stemmed from his capacity to coordinate attitude and the human anatomy perfectly. The artist knew how to demonstrate position and motion in the human body by relating it to the physique of the subject (Keele 366). As a result, his paintings were quite natural. Many armature contemporaries did not understand this relationship. Consequently, most of them did not change the way muscles looked in different parts of the body, such as the arms, stomach, as well as the back. Their images always seemed to lack adequate emotion. Leonardo explained that it was essential to match attitude with the position of the subject (Kemp and Wallae 87).Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To achieve this, one must consider some possible thoughts of the concerned models. Da Vinci often thought about mutes who solely rely on motion in their eyes, back, and feet in order to express what they think about. Alternatively Da Vinci knew how to match the age of the subject with the nature of the attitude that they had. For instance, Leonardo proposed that when drawing an old man, in the standing position, one must refrain from spreading his legs too wide (Keele 366). Additionally, various muscles and body parts must be used to echo this position. For instance, the person should have bent knees and he ought to have straddled feet. A crooked back would be appropriate as well as stooping shoulders. It would also be fitting for the old person to wear a dull and sluggish look (Richter 101). This attention to details revolving around the human anatomy made Da Vinci’s work come to life. It alludes to the propensity for the use of science in his work. The artist understood the clinical asymmetry of the human body. He knew that the neck area, hip area and shoulders often exhibit the greatest variability in motion. As result, it was necessary to alter these traits in order to meet his objectives. Leonardo thought of the human body as some sort of moving machine (Keele 368). Consequently, he was right to assert that the body was governed by mechanical laws. These concepts were indeed revolutionary because medical scientists did not understand them at the time. Nonetheless, they explained why Da Vinci captured attitude so effortlessly in his work. It is this combination of scientific techniques to achieve true representation that makes him an exemplary renaissance case (Gelb 99). Leonardo’s weaknesses and distinctness from other renaissance artists While Leonardo was one of the most influential figures in the renaissance, some of his work was wanting because of his artistic temperament. The individual rarely focused on one thing at a time. He was fasc inated by all he saw, and wanted to figure out how things worked. The problem with this attitude was that Leonardo often got bored with certain projects. He would start working on a piece of art and leave it half way (Van Cleave 86). Furthermore, sometimes he focused so much on experimenting that it often got in the way of actual artistic work. A case in point was the painting of the â€Å"Battle of Aughiari†. Leonardo was experimenting with new techniques of paint application. Although the work had initially been appealing, this changed dramatically owing to deterioration of the paint quality (Van Cleave 86), (Welch 64). Consequently, Da Vinci’s propensity for experimentation sometimes harmed his work. Beckett (5) explains that Da Vinci’s many talents caused him to place too much importance on other fields and thus treat his artistry lightly. To a certain extent, many experts have come to associate the renaissance period with fresco painting. It was a method th at renaissance artists preferred because not only was it a cheaper way of creating artistic pieces, but it also lasted longer than cloth, which was the form that inspired fresco painters (Lopez 204). The method required a lot if investment in artistic skill even though one did not need to use a lot of labour for the same. As a result, artists had to be careful about the way the work was done. One must prepare a wall surface and then create the right scaffolding. Artists needed to consider the weather when making fresco paintings. If they exposed their painting to wet or cold weather, then this would cause the plaster to remain wet. Alternatively, if a painter did fresco painting when it was dry, then chances are that a part of the painting would dry before completing it. Some artists looked for creative ways of dealing with the problem by combining oil and tempera (Welch 66). Da Vinci used his own approach to fresco painting by using with oil, although this did not work. It is likel y that his divided attention may have led to the problem. Currently, images of paintings that he made with this technique were disastrous because he did not give the method the time that it needed to develop the right approach. Leonardo was exceptional because he represented how artists could meet the objective of the renaissance era. The unique depictions of the human form could not be easily replicated by other artists. Many of the painters, who tried, only succeeded in imitating one or two elements of Leonardo’s work but never the entire piece (Turner 60). In this regard, one can assert that Leonardo’s influence stood apart from what other renowned artists had accomplished in the renaissance. Therefore, one can argue that Leonardo stood apart from others as an artist and this reduced his influence in the era. The subject matter of most of Da Vinci’s paintings was religious and traditional. In most circumstances he dwelt on angels and ordinary people. Therefor e, one can assert that there were minimal secular themes in Da Vinci’s work. In this regard, he did not advance secularism as was the case for certain renaissance artists (Burke 15). Conclusion Leonardo was an exemplary renaissance artist owing to his focus on accurately presenting images on two dimensional media. He used geometric and scientific methods to achieve this. Da Vinci also balanced light and darkness just like other renaissance artists. Leonardo captured the emotion and attitudes of his subject as was expected in the renaissance. In this regard, he was an exemplary artist. Some deviations from such expectations do not change this fact. Works Cited Burke, Peter. The Italian Renaissance: Culture and Society in Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999. Print. Beckett, Wendy. Leonardo Da Vinci 2010. Web.. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/L/leonardo.html Gelb, Michael. How to Think Like Leonardo: Seven Steps to Genius Every Day. New York, NY: Delacorte Press. 1998. Print. Hartt, Frederick and Wilkins, David. History of Italian Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson, 2003. Print. Hay, Denys. The Italian Renaissance in Its Historical Background. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Print. Jurdjevic, Mark. â€Å"Hedgehogs and Foxes: The Present and Future of Italian Renaissance Intellectual History. â€Å" Past Present 195(2007): 241-268. Print. Kavaler, Ethan. â€Å"Renaissance Gothic: Pictures of Geometry and Narratives of Ornament.† Art History 29.1(2006): 1-46. Keele, Kenneth. Leonardo Da Vinci’s Infleunce on Renaissance Anatomy n.d. Web. Kemp, Martin Wallae Marina. Spectacular Bodies: The Art and Science of the Human Body from Leonardo to Now. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001. Print. Langley, Andrew. Leonardo da Vinci and the Renaissance. Philadelphia, Pa.: Running Press, 2001. Print. Lopez, Robert Sabatino, The Three Ages of the Italian Renaissance. Charlottesvill e: University Press of Virginia, 1970. Print. Macdonald, Fiona. The World in the Time of Leonardo da Vinci. Parsippany, N.J: Dillon Press, 1998. Print. Maginnis, Hayden. Painting in the Age of Giotto: A Historical Reevaluation, Oxford: OUP, 1997. Print. McHam, Sarah. Looking at Italian Renaissance Sculpture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998. Print. O’Connor, Barbara. Leonardo Da Vinci: Renaissance Genius. MN: Carolhoda Books, 2003. Print. Richter, Irma. The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1998. Print. Saari, Peggy Saari, Aaron. Julie Carnagie, project: Renaissance Reformation, Primary Sources. Detroit :UXL, 2002. Print. Turner, Jane. Encyclopaedia of Italian Renaissance and Mannerist Art. Chicago: Doubleday, 2000. Print. Van Cleave, Claire. Master Drawings of the Italian Renaissance. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2007. Print. Welch Evelyne. Art in Renaissance Italy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print. This essay on Leonardo Da Vinci was written and submitted by user Nickolas U. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Information System Strategy

Information System Strategy Several decades ago, the UAE telecommunication market used to be widely criticized for its slow development, the exceeding extent of the governmental regulating power, and the high cost of the offered services. However, the situation seems to have changed significantly with the appearance of the Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company that has become better known as du.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Information System Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Today, the company is, beyond any doubt, the recognized leader in the UAE market of telecommunication providers. According to the specialists’ estimate, du’s customer base comprises of more than 7.5 individual clients and about 80,000 firms that are quite impressive figures for a company which began operating less than a decade ago. Today, du is the recipient of numerous regional and international awards (Kelly Flanagan 2015). The analysi s of the corporate strategy makes one assume that the efficient integration of innovation systems in the company’s performance is one of the determining factors of its success. Information systems have become an integral part of the global environment, and thus, play an important role in the organisational strategy. The implementation of these systems requires careful monitoring and forecasting – whereas some innovations can be applied in a short period, the integration of others might require extra time and effort. According to du’s Sustainability Report, information systems are on the top list of the company’s priorities. Thus, one might note that the development of this field is considered both in the short and long-term perspectives (Emirates Integrated Telecommunication Company, 2015). It is evident that the company that has already proved to be one of the most progressive IT users is not going to rest on ones laurels. Among the short-term strategies referring to information systems, one should necessarily point out the recently signed agreement that implies the strengthening of collaboration between du and the Project Management Institute (PMI). This initiative is likely to bring a lot of benefits for the company’s performers as du will receive access to the entire global database that the institution currently possesses. The implementation of the following practices is likely to assist in the development of the company’s new projects, Smart City Initiative and Managed Services Solutions. As long as PMI has a reputation of one of the most progressive research centers in the field of IT and information systems, one may suppose, that this cooperation will enable du to find innovative solutions for the projects mentioned above.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to its Chief Corporate Affair s Office, Ananda Bose, the initiative is likely to give du an opportunity to â€Å"generate maximum value† for its clients (Kelly Flanagan, para.3). Meanwhile, du’s CEO, Osman Sultan, in his interview for Entrepreneur, also puts a particular emphasis on the role of information systems in the corporate strategy. While Ananda Bose focuses on the importance of the collaboration with progressive organisations and adopting the best world practices, du’s CEO points out the significance of the Internet’s integration in the existing context. Thus, according to Sultan, the company is planning to perform a contribution to the development of its cloud-based platforms that are considered to be one of the most successful Internet innovations (Thomas 2015). Therefore, the company is decisive to employ all the innovations that appear in the information system market. As to the long-term perspectives, du has a lot of bold ambitions, among which, one can point out their intention to become the regional innovation hub. Thus, the launch of the BabNoor App aimed at facilitation of the communication between family members and educating communities has become the first step on the long way to their ultimate goal. The mentioned above Smart City project is going to be another example of the successful integration of IT in the company’s performance, and, what is more important, in the everyday life of the customers. The rough model of the innovation has been already demonstrated during the UAE Innovation Week. As the Smart City’s preview has shown, the model is likely to offer a series of innovative opportunities including the homes of the future that will be virtually controlled by the owners (Du Demonstrates How Innovation Is Improving Day-to-Day Life During UAE Innovation Week 2015). Nevertheless, one should point out that the benefits of the information resources’ development imply more than the creation of the output that will fit the customers’ demand. In fact, the skillful implementation of the information resources is likely to improve the performance of a company at every level. In other words, it might affect not only the firm’s clientele but its workforce as well.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Information System Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, the strategic management discipline lays a particular emphasis on the implementation of information resources in the organisational performance. It is presumed that such an approach can have positive outcomes. First of all, a company can employ information resources in order to optimize the delivery of the product or service it offers to the targeted client. For example, the SelfCare portal that du has recently designed has significantly facilitated the process of company’s cooperation with its clients. With the help of the relevant service, the customers ar e able to get acquainted with all the du’s products both that already exist and those that one plans to introduce. Moreover, the platform enables one to perform the instant payment that particularly appeals to those who search for the time preserving service. The following innovation also has a feedback option that enables the company to gather all the actual data on the customers’ demand and allows performing necessary changes whenever required. Furthermore, the information resources provide an opportunity to improve the inner management structure and the staff’s interaction that can increase the management’s efficacy considerably. Thus, according to du’s Sustainability Report, the corporate workforce is largely encouraged to use the latest IT in their work. It is particularly important to note, that every employee receives an opportunity to improve his or her IT competence with the help of corporate seminars and courses. The company has establish ed a special Innovation Ideas Award that is aimed at inspiring the work staff to work out the strategies of effective implementation of the modern information resources and technologies (Emirates Integrated Telecommunication Company, 2015). The skillful use of the information resources in du allows the firm not only to improve the quality of the inner performance but to attract the high-qualified specialists from without. Hence, the company’s strong media presence, including their constant update in social networking, lets the worldwide specialists remain aware of the company’s progress, get acquainted with its general policy and targets, that increases the chances of employing professional workers from foreign countries. According to the report, a considerable part of du’s current workforce is comprised of specialists from different countries (Emirates Integrated Telecommunication Company, 2015). Finally, a business strategy that does not neglect the applicatio n of information resources has good chances to raise its compatibility in the relevant market. There are a lot of examples that illustrate how the successful implementation of the existing information resources has turned a firm into a leader in the relevant field. One can definitely claim that du’s case is not an exception. According to the specialists’ estimate the company now takes the leading position in the UAE telecommunication market which is proved by its profit increase. Du’s Chairman, Ahmad Bin Byat, believes that the successful performance is largely determined by the company’s focus on the information systems implementation and the innovations’ encouragement (Emirates Integrated Telecommunication Company, 2015).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One might even presume that today, du has no competitors in the regional market. Such an assumption is determined by the fact that the company has been nominated for the GIS Implementation Award. In 2015, du received the following award that was aimed to mark its progress in the implementation of the information systems. The platform GISWORX that was designed by du is likely to contribute significantly to the network planning and improve the conditions for the business analytics in general. According to du’s Senior Vice President of the Information Technology Department, Walid Kamal, the information system has already become â€Å"an integral part† of the company’s operation, and du will keep on working on the development of the new platforms that will allow their customers to benefit from the so-called â€Å"home† services (Du Honored as Pioneer in Geographic Information Systems in GISWORX 2015). Therefore, du’s reasonable approach to the informat ion resource’s implementation has a beneficial effect on the company’s performance at every level. First of all, du has strengthened its company-client connection. Secondly, the information system helps to improve the management activity as well as to attract new specialists from other countries. Finally, the successful integration of the information resources and technologies has determined the rise of the firm’s competitiveness and enabled du to become a recognized leader in the relevant field. It is particularly important to add that the company is aware of the changing character of the information system environment and, thus, it is determined to adjust to the potential transformations in order to maintain its competitive capacity. As well as every other field, the information systems can be most effectively applied on the basis that a company performs an interchange of experience with other organisations. Such cooperation is particularly important regarding large-scale projects. A strategic alliance helps both participants benefit equally providing one another with the existing information database gathered throughout the company’s operating. It seems that from the very beginning, du’s management has realized the necessity for cooperating with other organisations in order to complete it short and long-terms. Thus, in 2009, Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) announced the beginning of its cooperation with du that was supposed to open the new horizons for both the companies. Whereas, du, at that period, was a relatively new player in the information resources field, it already had an efficient platform fitting DEWA’s demand. Du, in its turn, received an opportunity to access DEWA’s fibre optic networks on the basis of which a series of its innovations later appeared (DEWA Enters into Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with Du to Lease-Out Part of DEWA’s Dark Fibre 2015). Meanwhile, most of the strategic alliances are normally formed in connection with a particular project’s launch when the existing information resources’ base turns out to be insufficient for the goal’s realization. One has already mentioned du’s strategic cooperation with the Project Management Institution that is likely to help improve its information strategy. Another important alliance that du has recently entered is its strategic collaboration with the Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Centre (ADSIC). The alliance is determined by du’s intention to develop the Smart City project that requires extra resources and assistance. Thus, ADSIC and du have decided to pool forces in order to improve their performance. Among the short-term aims, they point out the design of a new WiFi UAE network that will offer a client to choose between WiFi and Premium WiFi options. As to the long-term perspectives, the companies have announced their intention to cooperate in order to c ontribute to the development of the regional infrastructure and public sectors (ADSIC and Du Ink Cooperation Agreement 2015). Moreover, one should necessarily note that the provided examples should not be regarded as one-off incidents the strategic alliance issue is included on the company’s priority list. Hence, according to the Sustainability Report, du eagerly considers any chance of cooperation in the field of information systems. The company is aware of the necessity to exchange the experience in order to remain updated in such an unstable environment as IT and innovations. It is important that du announces its readiness not only to use the information resources of their partners but to share the corporate ideas as well. In fact, the companies authorities admit that it is their cooperative attitude that allowed them to launch such projects as du Live!, Pay as You Go, and Wow recharge Card (Emirates Integrated Telecommunication Company, 2015). Therefore, the example of d u’s case shows that a strategic alliance is an indispensable condition for sustaining and innovating information systems. The phenomenon might be explained both by the process of constant transformations, which take place in the relevant field and the fact that some projects are too long-scale to be carried out successfully without a strategic alliance. In his interview, du’s CEO, Osman Sultan, supports this point of view and announces the company’s willingness to extend its collaboration in the field of information systems (Thomas 2015). As long as the significance of the information systems implementation is undoubted, the question arises regarding the fact how the following implementation can be carried out in such a manner that it becomes an integral part of the corporate strategy. One of the key factors determining the successful implementation is the preceding planning. Thus, one is to work out a strategy that would coincide with the organisational design and would describe the integration of the informational resources at every level of the company’s operating. The analysis of du’s case makes one come to a conclusion that the company has already managed to work out a proper approach. Hence, unlike the global companies that focus on the implementation of information systems in the perspective of the inner hierarchy’s improvement, du realizes its regional character and employs informational resources for the purposes of the client base’s extension. Du’s management, being aware of the specificity of the organisation’s structure, focuses on the attraction of the new clientele via the worked out platforms and services. In fact, one might presume that information resources are the only opportunity for du to become a player in the global market. The relevant approach enables the company not only to attract new customers but to preserve the loyalty of the existing ones as well. The employed informat ion resources allow receiving the latest feedback and performing the necessary actions to maintain the dynamic business process. The compatibility aspect also seems to be worth focusing on in case one is eager to maintain the business process’s agility. Modern information systems enable a firm not only to develop their own services and products but also to perform the profound monitoring of other players’ performance in order to adapt the successful experience and avoid the potentially wrong decision-making. In the case of du, the company’s management seems to be perfectly aware of the unstable character of its leading position, thus, the necessity to follow the progress of the rivals is openly discussed by its leaders (Thomas 2015). Nevertheless, it is necessary to note that one can hardly find any examples of du’s implementation of the information system with a focus on the staffs’ performance. Apart from the particular courses and seminars that are supposed to improve the general IT consciousness, the practical application of information resources to the employees operating is not enlightened. Meanwhile, this aspect is rather important. In fact, modern information resources are likely to facilitate the operation of both a particular department and the company on the whole. Various platforms that allow employees to stay in contact with their colleagues and the front office tend to optimize the management by making the regulation process independent of the location. Another option that information systems provide for the establishment of a dynamic business process and that seems to be neglected by du is the low-cost leadership strategy. Thus, many modern companies benefit successfully from the capacity to stay constantly aware of the pricing policy of their competitors. The following monitoring allows them to adjust their own costs to the customers’ demand and to win the â€Å"competition† due to the low-cost o ffer. In du’s case, the strategy seems to be unemployed as the company is often criticized for being one of the most expensive telecommunication providers in the eastern market. As it has already been mentioned, the information system is a rapidly changing environment. As a result, companies are required to perform constant monitoring process to be aware of the latest trends and tendencies that appear in the relevant context. In order to carry out a successful implementation of the existing information resources, one is frequently required to make some changes in the corporate strategy and to adjust it in accordance with the social needs and demands. According to the Sustainability report, du is aware of the described challenge and keeps working on the effective solutions. Thus, the company has recently established a special department responsible for the Information System integration (Emirates Integrated Telecommunication Company, 2015). One might suggest that in order to i mprove competitive competence the company can employ a network-based strategy that will help du to strengthen its position in the global market. Another challenge is connected with the company’s intention to become the regional innovation hub. The accomplishment of this aim might require extra efforts in the information resources’ implementation. The company will have to find a way to apply the latest resources to set a contact with the society that can be highly helpful in the evaluation of particular initiatives. Finally, whereas the reducing cost of the information resources might be beneficial for a company that wants to implement them, it may be simultaneously regarded as a disadvantage as it signifies that this option is equally available for any organisation. The recently appeared firms often prove to be more susceptible to the new trends and, thus, show a better performance in the innovation field, while their older rivals might be unwilling to undergo signific ant changes. As a consequence, it is crucial that du lays a particular emphasis on the optimization of its inner structure through information resources. The introduction of some information technologies can imply inner reformation and a shift to the self-managing regime in certain departments. Whereas the practice might seem too challenging, the resistance to transform is likely to be more harmful than the potential outcome of its implementation. Moreover, the long-term perspective of the potential challenges is connected with the Internet platforms gaining their popularity. The modern services create favorable conditions for distant employment that usually leads to the significant staff reduction. As a consequence, du might soon face the ethical dilemma whether to optimize the efficacy by reducing the salaries expenses or to preserve the workforce carrying out its obligations of the employer. The following problem requires careful consideration and the changes should not be perfor med too promptly. Finally, the successful implementation of the information resources requires innovative ideas and approaches. In fact, the information system provides resource base to which every company has an equal access. Therefore, it is a firm’s unconventional decision-making that lets it become a leader in the relevant field. It means that innovative thinking should be encouraged at every corporate level. One has already mentioned the special Innovation Ideas Award that du offers to the most successful performers. It is important that the following award is equally available to every employee regardless of the hierarchy status. In conclusion, one should note that information system plays an important role in a company’s strategy. The successful implementation of existing information resources enables a firm to improve its general performance and raise its competitive competence. Meanwhile, a positive outcome of the following integration can be expected on condi tion that the suggested approach coincides with the initial organisational design taking into account its specificity and weak points. The analysis of du’s information strategy has shown that the company manages to remain a leading player in the telecommunication market largely to its effective implementation of the available information resources. Thus, du’s information strategy is aimed at the improvement of the customers’ service both by providing the clients with new convenient options and monitoring the feedback. Moreover, the company makes a lot of effort to form strategic alliances that might be beneficial for the development of its information strategy. Therefore, du’s readiness to cooperate along with its intention to maintain the innovative activity, determine the success of its performance and enable it to remain the leading telecommunication company in UAE. Reference List ADSIC and Du Ink Cooperation Agreement 2015, http://gulfnews.com/busines s/sectors/telecoms/adsic-and-du-ink-cooperation-agreement-1.1634056. DEWA Enters into Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with Du to Lease-Out Part of DEWA’s Dark Fibre 2015, du.ae/about-us/media-centre/newsdetail/DEWA-enters-into-partnership-and-cooperation-agreement-with-du-to-lease-out-part-of-DEWA-s-dark-fibre. Du Demonstrates How Innovation Is Improving Day-to-Day Life During UAE Innovation Week 2015, du.ae/about-us/media-centre/newsdetail/2015/05/06/du-honored-as-pioneer-in-geographic-information-systems-in-gisworx-2015. Du Honored as Pioneer in Geographic Information Systems in GISWORX 2015, du.ae/about-us/media-centre/newsdetail/2015/05/06/du-honored-as-pioneer-in-geographic-information-systems-in-gisworx-2015. Emirates Integrated Telecommunication Company 2015, Sustainability Report, du.ae/docs/default-source/About-Docs/du-sustainability-report-2014.pdf?sfvrsn=4 Kelly, MM Flanagan, K 2015, Du and Project Management Institute Strengthen Bonds for Strategic Collabo ration, media release, 2 December, pmi.org/About-Us/Press-Releases/du-Project-Management-Institute-strengthen-bonds-strategic-collaboration.aspx. Thomas, AS 2015, Follow The Leader: Osman Sultan, CEO, du, Entrepreneur, 15 September, entrepreneur.com/article/250611.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Warning, This Post May Be Stolen

Warning, This Post May Be Stolen Warning, This Post May Be Stolen Warning, This Post May Be Stolen By Maeve Maddox A lot of writing sites link to posts on the DailyWritingTips site. We like that. Sometimes they run a brief quotation followed by a link to the rest of the article on our site. I see nothing wrong with that. Sometimes, however, they post an entire article on their sites, followed by attribution and a link to DWT. Apparently they are acting in good faith, imagining that including attribution makes it all right to reproduce the entire post. It isn’t. That’s copyright violation. This week I happened across a site that not only publishes our posts in their entirety, but does so without attribution: leestringer.net (not linked for obvious reasons). Some of my posts are attributed to â€Å"Sweet Jane.† There is a â€Å"Go to Source† link that appears after a Twitter icon at the far bottom of the posts. Perhaps that’s intended as a defense in case of being called on it. The way our material is integrated into the overall design of the poaching website, the site’s readers probably don’t even notice the buried â€Å"source† link. It took me a while to find it, and I was looking. Naturally this experience got me thinking about plagiarism. Plagiarism is theft. It’s from Latin plagiarius meaning â€Å"kidnapper† or â€Å"plunderer.† Inexperienced writers sometimes commit plagiarism unintentionally by paraphrasing badly, misquoting, or failing to attribute a quotation to its source. Unscrupulous writers do it intentionally, in order to profit from the work of others. Anyone who writes, or makes use of the writing of others, needs to become informed about copyright and fair use. An excellent discussion of copyright infringement is Brad Templeton’s 10 Big Myths about copyright explained. An academic take on plagiarism useful to students can be found on the University of Wisconsin-Platteville library site. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:70 "Home" Idioms and Expressions50 Latin Phrases You Should KnowThe Difference Between "Shade" and "Shadow"

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Johann Sebastian Bach Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Johann Sebastian Bach - Research Paper Example Although Bach did not receive recognition as a composer during the period, the 19th century led to a revival of performances and interests in his music, which upon closer examination have made him be regarded as one of the greatest composers in history. Discussion Period of Composition Johann Sebastian Bach made his famous compositions during the Baroque period. This was an era of European music that was between 1600 and 1750. The word Baroque is used in reference to extravagance, abnormality and strangeness. The music played during the Baroque period was highly ornate, intense and lavishly texturized. The composers of this era, such as Johann Sebastian Bach, were able to express feelings and emotions in their compositions. Moreover, the compositions made during the Baroque period had an emphasis on contrast of texture, pace and volume in the music, which was not witnessed in the late renaissance, when the music played, did not concentrate on the aforementioned elements2. Bachâ€℠¢s rise to greatness The rich musical history of Bach’s family was instrumental in ensuring that Bach became the greatest composer in history. Christened father of classical music, Bach demonstrated a deep understanding of phrasing and musical forms. Following Bach’s graduation from St. ... However, the relationship between Bach and the authorities at Arnstadt deteriorated with Bach voicing his dissatisfaction with the singers of the church’s choir3. In 1706, Bach was offered the position of an organist at a church in Muhlhausen, which he decided to take up the following year. This position provided Bach with an opportunity to improve his skills as it included incentives such as a good choir, improved conditions and better remuneration. Bach convinced the city government and the church to refurbish the organ at the church after which Bach repaid them with a festive composition for the incumbent council in the location. The composition became a major success, which compelled the council to reward Bach handsomely4. Bach returned to Weimar as an accomplished concertmaster and organist. He enhanced his prowess by working with professional musicians. Bach was able to spend most of his time composing orchestral and keyboard works. This dedication made him to attain the required confidence and proficiency that enabled him to enhance the existing structures and attain substantial influence in foreign countries. Furthermore, during this time Bach was able to make dramatic openings and use the harmonic schemes and dynamic rhythms, which were synonymous with Italians musicians such as Torelli, Vivaldi and Corelli. The stylistic aspects from the aforementioned Italians enabled Bach to make works, which are played in concerts even to date5. Historical Events in Bach’s Life There are some major events in Bach’s life that influenced and shaped his musical career. When he was 14 years old, Bach was awarded a scholarship that enabled him to study at St. Michaels School. This prestigious school was